Today in History: February 9

1555 – Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper was burned at the stake.

1775 – American Revolutionary War: The British Parliament declared Massachusetts in rebellion.

1778 – Rhode Island became the fourth US state to ratify the Articles of Confederation.

1825 – After no candidate received a majority of electoral votes in the US presidential election of 1824, the United States House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams as 6th President of the United States in a contingent election.

1861 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis was elected the Provisional President of the Confederate States of America by the Provisional Confederate Congress at Montgomery, Alabama.

1870 – US president Ulysses S. Grant signed a joint resolution of Congress establishing the U.S. Weather Bureau.

1895 – William G. Morgan created a game called Mintonette, which soon came to be referred to as volleyball.

1913 – A group of meteors was visible across much of the eastern seaboard of the Americas, leading astronomers to conclude the source had been a small, short-lived natural satellite of the Earth.

1942 – Year-round Daylight saving time (aka War Time) was reinstated in the United States as a wartime measure to help conserve energy resources.

1943 – World War II: Pacific War: Allied authorities declared Guadalcanal secure after Imperial Japan evacuated its remaining forces from the island, which ended the Battle of Guadalcanal.

1943 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an executive order which set a minimum 48-hour work week in a number of critical war industries.

1945 – World War II: Battle of the Atlantic: HMS Venturer sank U-864 off the coast of Fedje, Norway, in a rare instance of submarine-to-submarine combat.

1950 – Second Red Scare: US Senator Joseph McCarthy accused the United States Department of State of being filled with Communists.

1951 – Korean War: The two-day Geochang massacre began as a battalion of the 11th Division of the South Korean Army killed 719 unarmed citizens in Geochang, in the South Gyeongsang district of South Korea.

1959 – The R-7 Semyorka, the first intercontinental ballistic missile, became operational at Plesetsk, USSR.

1961 – The Beatles played their first gig at Liverpool’s Cavern Club.  They played there nearly 300 times over the next two years.

1964 – The Beatles made their first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show and performed before a record-setting audience of 73 million viewers across the United States.

1965 – Vietnam War: The United States Marine Corps sent a MIM-23 Hawk missile battalion to South Vietnam, the first American troops in-country without an official advisory or training mission.

1969 – First flight of the Boeing 747 jumbo jet.

1971 – The 6.5–6.7 Mw  Sylmar earthquake hit the Greater Los Angeles Area with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), killing 64 and injuring 2,000.

1971 – Apollo program: Apollo 14 returned to Earth after the third manned Moon landing.

1975 – The Soyuz 17 Soviet spacecraft returned to Earth.

1985 – Madonna’s album “Like a Virgin” went to #1 and remained there for 3 weeks.

1986 – Halley’s Comet last appeared in the inner Solar System.

1991 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Voters in Lithuania voted for independence from the Soviet Union.

2001 – The Ehime Maru and USS Greeneville collision took place, killing nine of the thirty-five people on board the Japanese fishery high-school training ship Ehime Maru, leaving the USS Greeneville (SSN-772) with a US $2 million in repairs, at Pearl Harbor.

2021 – Second impeachment trial of Donald Trump began.

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