Today in History – July 20

1831 – Seneca and Shawnee people agreed to relinquish their land in western Ohio for 60,000 acres west of the Mississippi River.

1848 – The first Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, a two-day event, concluded.

1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Peachtree Creek: Near Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate forces led by General John Bell Hood unsuccessfully attacked Union troops under General William T. Sherman.

1900 – An airship designed and constructed by Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin of Germany made its first flight near Friedrichshafen.

1903 – The Ford Motor Company shipped its first automobile.

1934 – Labor unrest in the U.S.: Police in Minneapolis fired upon striking truck drivers, during the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934, killing two and wounding sixty-seven.

1934 – West Coast waterfront strike: In Seattle, police fired tear gas on and clubbed 2,000 striking longshoremen. The governor of Oregon called out the National Guard to break a strike on the Portland docks.

1938 – The United States Department of Justice filed suit in New York City against the motion picture industry charging violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act in regards to the studio system. The case eventually resulted in a break-up of the industry in 1948.

1944 – World War II: Adolf Hitler survived an assassination attempt led by German Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg.

1950 – Cold War: In Philadelphia, Harry Gold pled guilty to spying for the Soviet Union by passing secrets from atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs.

1960 – The Polaris missile was successfully launched from a submarine, the USS George Washington, for the first time.

1965 – Bob Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone” was released.

1968 – The first International Special Olympics Summer Games were held at Soldier Field in Chicago, with about 1,000 athletes with intellectual disabilities.

1968 – Jane Asher announced that Paul McCartney had broken off their engagement.

1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 11’s crew successfully made the first manned landing on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the Moon six and a half hours later.

1975 – Steve Van Zandt (also known as Little Steven) performed for the first time in concert as a member of Bruce Springsteen’s E Street Band.

1976 – The American Viking 1 lander successfully landed on Mars.

1977 – The Central Intelligence Agency released documents under the Freedom of Information Act which revealed that it had engaged in mind-control experiments.

1977 – The Johnstown flood of 1977 killed 84 people and caused millions of dollars in damages.

1979 – Electric Light Orchestra took out advertisements dedicating the release of “Don’t Bring Me Down” to Skylab.

1997 – The fully restored USS Constitution (a.k.a. Old Ironsides) celebrated its 200th birthday by setting sail for the first time in 116 years.

2012 – James Holmes opened fire at a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, killing 12 and injuring 70 others.

2015 – The United States and Cuba resumed full diplomatic relations after five decades.

2017 – O. J. Simpson was granted parole to be released from prison after serving nine years of a 33-year sentence after being convicted of armed robbery in Las Vegas.

2021 – American businessman Jeff Bezos flew to space aboard New Shepard NS-16 operated by his Private spaceflight company Blue Origin.

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