1400 – Owain Glyndŵr was declared Prince of Wales by his followers.
1620 – A determined band of 35 religious dissenters – Pilgrims set sail for Virginia from Plymouth, England in the Mayflower, jubilant at the prospect of practicing their unorthodox brand of worship in the New World.
1701 – James Francis Edward Stuart, sometimes called the “Old Pretender”, became the Jacobite claimant to the thrones of England and Scotland.
1776 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Harlem Heights was fought.
1779 – American Revolutionary War: The Franco-American Siege of Savannah began.
1863 – Robert College, in Istanbul, the first American educational institution outside the United States, was founded by Christopher Robert, an American philanthropist.
1880 – The Cornell Daily Sun printed its first issue in Ithaca, New York. The Sun is the United States’ oldest, continuously-independent college daily.
1893 – Settlers made a land run for prime land in the Cherokee Strip in Oklahoma.
1908 – The General Motors Corporation was founded.
1920 – The Wall Street bombing: A bomb in a horse wagon exploded in front of the J. P. Morgan building in New York City killing 38 and injuring 400.
1938 – “Boogie Woogie” was recorded by Tommy Dorsey and His Orchestra.
1943 – World War II: The German Tenth Army reported that it could no longer contain the Allied bridgehead around Salerno.
1945 – World War II: The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong ended.
1955 – A Soviet Zulu-class submarine became the first to launch a ballistic missile.
1959 – The first successful photocopier, the Xerox 914, was introduced in a demonstration on live television from New York City.
1961 – The United States National Hurricane Research Project dropped eight cylinders of silver iodide into the eyewall of Hurricane Esther. Wind speed reduced by 10% which gave rise to Project Stormfury.
1961 – Typhoon Nancy, with possibly the strongest winds ever measured in a tropical cyclone, made landfall in Osaka, Japan, and killed 173 people.
1963 – The Beatles single “She Loves You” was released in the U.S.
1963 – The Beach Boys album Surfer Girl was released.
1964 – Shindig! premiered on ABC. The first show opened with Sam Cooke, The Everly Brothers, The Wellingtons, The Righteous Brothers, Bobby Sherman and Alan Sues.
1965 – The second season of Shindig! was opened with the Rolling Stones performing “Satisfaction.” The Kinks, Byrds and Everly Brothers also appeared on the season opener.
1965 – The Grace Cathedral in San Francisco was the site of Duke Ellington’s first concert.
1966 – The Metropolitan Opera House opened at Lincoln Center in New York City with the world premiere of Samuel Barber’s opera Antony and Cleopatra.
1970 – Jimi Hendrix made his final public appearance. He appeared with Eric Burdon and War at a club in London.
1975 – The first prototype of the Soviet Mikoyan MiG-31 interceptor made its maiden flight.
1976 – Armenian champion swimmer Shavarsh Karapetyan saved 20 people from a trolleybus that had fallen into a Yerevan reservoir.
1978 – The Grateful Dead recorded a concert at the pyramids in Egypt.
1979 – Eight people escaped from East Germany to the west in a homemade hot air balloon.
1987 – The Montreal Protocol was signed to protect the ozone layer from depletion.
1992 – The trial of the deposed Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega ended in the United States with a 40-year sentence for drug trafficking and money laundering.
2004 – Hurricane Ivan made landfall in Gulf Shores, Alabama as a Category 3 hurricane.
2013 – A gunman killed twelve people at the Washington Navy Yard.
2014 – The George Strait live album The Cowboy Rides Away: Live from AT&T Stadium was released. The show was the last of George Strait’s last tour.
2019 – Five months before the COVID-19 stock market crash, an overnight spike in lending rates in the United States prompted the Federal Reserve to conduct operations in the repo market.