1189 – Richard I of England (a.k.a. Richard “the Lionheart”) was crowned at Westminster.
1658 – The death of Oliver Cromwell; Richard Cromwell became Lord Protector of England.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: During the Battle of Cooch’s Bridge, the Flag of the United States was flown in battle for the first time.
1783 – American Revolutionary War: The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris by the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1838 – Future abolitionist Frederick Douglass escaped from slavery.
1895 – John Brallier became the first openly professional American football player when he was paid $10 by David Berry to play for the Latrobe Athletic Association in a 12–0 win over the Jeanette Athletic Association.
1914 – French composer Albéric Magnard was killed while defending his estate against invading German soldiers.
1916 – World War I: Pilot Leefe Robinson destroyed the German airship Schütte-Lanz SL 11 over Cuffley, north of London; the first German airship to be shot down on British soil.
1925 – USS Shenandoah, the United States’ first American-built rigid airship, was destroyed in a squall line over Noble County, Ohio. Fourteen of her 42-man crew perished, including her commander, Zachary Lansdowne.
1935 – Sir Malcolm Campbell reached a speed of 304.331 miles per hour on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, and thus became the first person to drive an automobile over 300 mph.
1939 – World War II: France, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia declared war on Germany after the invasion of Poland, forming the Allied nations. The Viceroy of India also declared war, but without consulting the provincial legislatures.
1939 – World War II: The United Kingdom and France began a naval blockade of Germany that lasted until the end of the war. This also marked the beginning of the Battle of the Atlantic.
1941 – The Holocaust: Karl Fritzsch, deputy camp commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp, experimented with the use of Zyklon B in the gassing of Soviet POWs.
1942 – World War II: In response to news of its coming liquidation, Dov Lopatyn led an uprising in the Ghetto of Lakhva (present-day Belarus).
1944 – Holocaust: Diarist Anne Frank and her family were placed on the last transport train from the Westerbork transit camp to the Auschwitz concentration camp. They arrived three days later.
1955 – KTBS TV channel 3 in Shreveport, LA (ABC) began broadcasting.
1964 – US attorney general Robert F. Kennedy resigned.
1965 – Rolling Stones concert at the Adelphi Theater in Dublin, Ireland halted after 12 minutes due to a riot.
1966 – Donovan hits #1 with the song “Sunshine Superman”.
1967 – Dagen H in Sweden: Traffic changed from driving on the left to driving on the right overnight.
1967 – Final episode of “What’s My Line?” hosted by John Charles Daly on CBS TV.
1970 – Bill Haley & His Comets rejected $30,000 for 15 date tour of Australia.
1971 – Watergate team broke into Daniel Ellsberg’s doctor’s office.
1976 – Viking program: The American Viking 2 spacecraft landed at Utopia Planitia on Mars.
1981 – The longest MLB game in Fenway Park history was suspended after 19 innings at Seattle Mariners 7, Boston Red Sox 7; the Mariners won 8-7 in the 20th inning the following morning.
1995 – eBay (Electronic Bay) was founded by Pierre Omidyar.
2013 – Microsoft purchased Nokia for $7.2 Billion.
2020 – MacKenzie Scott, philanthropist and ex-wife of Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos, became the world’s richest woman worth $68 billion.
2020 – Actor Robert Pattinson tested positive for COVID-19, which shut down production of the Batman film he was shooting.
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