1054 – Siward, Earl of Northumbria, invaded Scotland and defeated Macbeth, King of Scotland, somewhere north of the Firth of Forth.
1663 – The English Parliament passed the second Navigation Act which required that all goods bound for the American colonies had to be sent in English ships from English ports. After the Acts of Union 1707, Scotland was included in the Act.
1775 – Founding of the U.S. Army Medical Department: The Second Continental Congress passed legislation which established “an hospital for an army consisting of 20,000 men.”
1778 – American Revolution: First Battle of Ushant: British and French fleets fought to a standoff.
1789 – The first U.S. federal government agency, the Department of Foreign Affairs, was established (it was later renamed Department of State).
1816 – Seminole Wars: The Battle of Negro Fort ended when a hot shot cannonball fired by US Navy Gunboat No. 154 exploded the fort’s Powder Magazine, killing approximately 275. It is considered the deadliest single cannon shot in US history.
1890 – Vincent van Gogh shot himself and died two days later.
1917 – World War I: The Allies reached the Yser Canal at the Battle of Passchendaele.
1919 – The Chicago Race Riot erupted after a racial incident occurred on a South Side beach, which led to 38 fatalities and 537 injuries over a five-day period.
1921 – Researchers at the University of Toronto, led by biochemist Frederick Banting, proved that the hormone insulin regulates blood sugar.
1929 – The Geneva Convention of 1929, dealing with treatment of prisoners-of-war, was signed by 53 nations.
1940 – The animated short A Wild Hare was released which introduced the character of Bugs Bunny.
1942 – World War II: Allied forces successfully halted the final Axis advance into Egypt.
1942 – Peggy Lee recorded “Why Don’t You Do Right” with Benny Goodman.
1949 – Initial flight of the de Havilland Comet, the first jet-powered airliner.
1953 – Cessation of hostilities was achieved in the Korean War when the United States, China, and North Korea signed an armistice agreement. Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea, refused to sign but pledges to observe the armistice.
1959 – The Continental League was announced as baseball’s “3rd major league” in the United States.
1959 – Brothers Santo and Johnny (Farina) saw their one and only hit record the instrumental “Sleepwalk” released.
1964 – Vietnam War: Five thousand more American military advisers were sent to South Vietnam which brought the total number of United States forces in Vietnam to 21,000.
1968 – The Who’s single “Magic Bus” was released in the U.S.
1974 – Watergate scandal: The House of Representatives Judiciary Committee voted 27 to 11 to recommend the first article of impeachment (for obstruction of justice) against President Richard Nixon.
1976 – John Lennon finally had his request for permanent residency in the United States approved.
1976 – Tina Turner filed for a divorce from Ike Turner.
1981 – Stevie Nicks’ first solo album, “Bella Donna,” was released.
1983 – Madonna’s self-titled debut album was released.
1984 – Prince’s first movie, “Purple Rain,” opened in the U.S.
1984 – The Metallica album “Ride the Lightning” was released.
1986 – Queen became the first act since Louis Armstrong to play in Budapest, Hungary.
1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C.
1996 – In Atlanta, United States, a pipe bomb exploded at Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics.
2005 – After an incident during STS-114, NASA grounded the Space Shuttle, pending an investigation of the continuing problem with the shedding of foam insulation from the external fuel tank.
2007 – The Simpsons Movie was released in theaters.
2007 – Paul Stanley (KISS) had to leave a concert due to his pulse being twice the normal level. The band performed as a trio with Gene Simmons singing all songs.
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