1571 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, was arrested for his role in the Ridolfi plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.
1630 – The city of Boston, Massachusetts was founded.
1776 – According to American colonial reports, Ezra Lee made the world’s first submarine attack in the Turtle while attempting to attach a time bomb to the hull of HMS Eagle in New York Harbor (no British records of this attack exist).
1778 – American Revolutionary War: France invaded Dominica in the British West Indies, before Britain was even aware of France’s involvement in the war.
1857 – Mountain Meadows massacre: Mormon settlers slaughtered most members of peaceful, emigrant wagon train.
1863 – American Civil War: Union troops under Quincy A. Gillmore captured Fort Wagner in Morris Island after a 7-week siege.
1864 – American Civil War: Atlanta was evacuated on orders of Union General William Tecumseh Sherman.
1876 – In Northfield, Minnesota, Jesse James and the James–Younger Gang attempted to rob the town’s bank but were driven off by armed citizens.
1907 – Cunard Line’s RMS Lusitania set sail on her maiden voyage from Liverpool, England, to New York City.
1907 – Oscar Hammerstein announced a plan for five opera houses in New York.
1909 – Eugène Lefebvre crashed a new French-built Wright biplane during a test flight at Juvisy, south of Paris, and became the first aviator in the world to lose his life in a powered heavier-than-air craft.
1911 – French poet Guillaume Apollinaire was arrested and put in jail on suspicion of stealing the Mona Lisa from the Louvre museum.
1916 – US federal employees won the right to Workers’ compensation by Federal Employers Liability Act (39 Stat. 742; 5 U.S.C. 751)
1921 – In Atlantic City, New Jersey, the first Miss America Pageant, a two-day event, was held.
1923 – The International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) was formed.
1927 – The first fully electronic television system was achieved by Philo Farnsworth.
1936 – Charles Hardin Holley, later Buddy Holly, was born in Lubbock, TX. His name was misspelled on his first record contract and he decided to leave it that way.
1940 – World War II: The German Luftwaffe began the Blitz, bombing London and other British cities for over 50 consecutive nights.
1943 – A fire at the Gulf Hotel in Houston killed 55 people.
1945 – World War II: Japanese forces on Wake Island, which they had held since December 1941, surrendered to U.S. Marines.
1945 – The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 was held.
1953 – Nikita Khrushchev was elected first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
1957 – Sam Cooke’s single “You Send Me” was released.
1963 – The Pro Football Hall of Fame opened in Canton, Ohio with 17 charter members.
1965 – Vietnam War: In a follow-up to August’s Operation Starlite, United States Marines and South Vietnamese forces initiated Operation Piranha on the Batangan Peninsula.
1969 – The half hour Saturday morning cartoon “The Beatles” aired its last show. The show had debuted on September 25, 1965.
1970 – Vietnam Television was established.
1975 – Steve Anderson set a record for picking a guitar. Anderson, at age 22, picked for 114 hours, 7 minutes. He broke the old record by more than four hours.
1977 – The Torrijos–Carter Treaties between Panama and the United States on the status of the Panama Canal were signed. The United States agreed to transfer control of the canal to Panama at the end of the 20th century.
1978 – While walking across Waterloo Bridge in London, Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police agent Francesco Gullino by means of a ricin pellet fired from a specially-designed umbrella.
1978 – Keith Moon, drummer for The Who, died in London after overdosing on Hemenephirin at the age of 31. He was taking the prescription drug to help him with alcohol. He was replaced in The Who by Kenney Jones (from the Faces).
1979 – The Chrysler Corporation asked the United States government for US$1.5 billion to avoid bankruptcy.
1986 – Michael Nesmith joined the other original Monkees on stage for the first time since the band disbanded. The appearance was at the Greek Theatre in Los Angeles, CA.
1987 – A Momentary Lapse of Reason was released by Pink Floyd. It was the first release after Roger Waters departure.
1996 – Rapper and actor Tupac Shakur was fatally shot in a drive-by shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada. He succumbed to his injuries six days later.
1997 – Maiden flight of the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor.
2008 – The United States government took control of the two largest mortgage financing companies in the US, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.
2017 – Equifax announced a cyber-crime identity theft event potentially impacting approximately 145 1⁄2 million U.S. consumers.
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