Today in History: October 19

1216 – King John of England died at Newark-on-Trent and was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.

1512 – Martin Luther became a doctor of theology.

1579 – James VI of Scotland was celebrated as an adult ruler by a festival in Edinburgh.

1781 – American Revolutionary War: The siege of Yorktown came to an end.

1789 – John Jay was sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.

1812 – The French invasion of Russia failed when Napoleon began his retreat from Moscow.

1813 – War of the Sixth Coalition: Napoleon was forced to retreat from Germany after the Battle of Leipzig.

1864 – American Civil War: The Battle of Cedar Creek ended the last Confederate threat to Washington, DC.

1864 – American Civil War: Confederate agents based in Canada robbed three banks in Saint Albans, Vermont.

1921 – The Portuguese Prime Minister and several officials were murdered in the Bloody Night coup.

1938 – The Bob Crosby Orchestra recorded “I’m Free.”

1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, was isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.

1944 – United States forces landed in the Philippines.

1953 – Singer Julius LaRosa was fired publicly on “Arthur Godfrey Time” by Godfrey.

1956 – The Soviet Union and Japan signed a Joint Declaration, officially ending the state of war between the two countries that had existed since August 1945.

1960 – The United States imposed a near-total trade embargo against Cuba.

1966 – The Yardbirds arrived in New York for their first U.S. tour.

1967 – “I Second That Emotion” by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles was released by Tamla-Motown.

1973 – President Nixon rejected an Appeals Court decision that he turn over the Watergate tapes.

1979 – Prince’s second album “Prince” was released.

1987 – The United States Navy conducted Operation Nimble Archer, an attack on two Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf.

1987 – Black Monday: The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell by 22%, 508 points.

1992 – The Metallica single “Wherever I May Roam” was released.

1998 – Mark Nieto filed a lawsuit against Aerosmith for alleged hearing loss after he attended an Aerosmith concert.

2003 – Mother Teresa was beatified by Pope John Paul II.

2004 – Thirteen people were killed when Corporate Airlines Flight 5966 crashed in Adair County, Missouri, whilst on approach to Kirksville Regional Airport.

2005 – Saddam Hussein went on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.

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